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1960s

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196XEdit

Early 1960s: Yevgeny Borisovitch Volgin inherits the microfilm containing the Philosophers' Legacy after the death of his father.[1]

The United States Army and the West German Army jointly develop a new tank in response to the Soviet T-62. The projects are named the MBT-70 and the KPz 70 for the United States and West Germany, respectively.

The West German military cancels the KPz 70 project due to over budgeting.

1960Edit

January 19th: The U.S.-Japan Security Treaty is signed in Washington, D.C.[2]

February 13th: France tests its first nuclear bomb, "Gerboise Bleue", in the middle of the Algerian Sahara desert, and becomes the world's fourth nuclear power.

May 1st: The 1960 U-2 incident. An American U-2 spy plane violates Soviet airspace and is shot down over the Ural Mountains.[3] CIA pilot Francis Gary Powers is taken prisoner and his confession brings to light the organization's activities in the region.[1]

May: Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev announces missile aid to Cuba.[3]

May: The South Vietnamese National Liberation Front (NLF) forms.[3]

May 15th: Sputnik 4 is launched. A glitch in its system, which is actually the result of sabotage caused by U.S. agents infiltrating the Soviet Union, causes it to go into higher orbit.

May 19th: The U.S.-Japan Security Treaty is made effective.

June 30th: The Congo Crisis begins. Constituting a series of civil wars, it is also a proxy conflict in the Cold War in which the Soviet Union and United States support opposing factions. Che Guevara is involved in the conflict.[2]

July: A Soviet rocket explodes on the launch pad before it can achieve liftoff.

July 12th: The Malayan Emergency ends.

August 21st: Sputnik 5 is launched, containing two dogs, two lab rats, and several plants.

August 22nd: Sputnik 5 achieves reentry, and the animal test subjects are recovered easily.

September: Two NSA code breakers, ADAM and EVA, defect to the Soviet Union.[1] They appear on a news program in Moscow announcing their defection and disclose the NSA's cryptanalytic missions. This is the first incident to reveal the truth behind the NSA to the world.[4][5]

Revisions towards the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty spark mass protests, especially in Okinawa.

The Mafia sting operations begin in Chicago.

1961Edit

January 3rd: The U.S. withdraws diplomatic recognition of the Cuban government and closes its embassy in Havana. Cuban and American diplomatic relations end.

January 20th: John F. Kennedy assumes office as the 35th President of the United States.[3]

Late January: NASA successfully places a chimpanzee named Ham into orbit.[2]

February: The U.S. conducts the first test of the Minutemen intercontinental ballistic missile.[3]

February 4th: The Angolan War of Independence begins.

April 12th: The USSR launches Vostok 1, the first manned spacecraft in history, piloted by Yuri Gagarin.[3][6] Russian scientist Nikolai Stepanovich Sokolov designed the multi-engine cluster for the Vostok Program.[1]

April 12th, 01:30: The Boss enters space, secretly achieving America's first manned space flight through the Mercury Project.[2][6] The U.S. loses the space race to Gagarin by only a few minutes. The Boss returns to Earth, but is injured in the crash landing and enters a coma for six months.

Sokolov begins development of the Shagohod.

April 15th until April 19th: The CIA launch Operation Zapata. The Bay of Pigs Invasion.[1] The U.S. Government uses the opportunity to cover up The Boss's failed space flight attempt by stating that she took part in the invasion.[2] The Pentagon begins to feel threatened by the CIA's growing influence in the U.S. military's affairs.

President Kennedy falls into disfavor with the Philosophers.[7]

A group of university students create the Sandinista National Liberation Front in Nicaragua. Their aim is to overthrow the Somoza regime and establish a Marxist state.

May 5th: Alan Shepard officially becomes the first American in rocket flight aboard the Redstone Rocket.[3]

May 11th: President Kennedy sends 400 U.S. Green Beret "Special Advisors" to South Vietnam to train South Vietnamese soldiers in guerrilla warfare.

The CIA begins to sponsor and train the Civilian Irregular Defense Groups (CIDG) in the South Central Highlands of Vietnam, which is mainly composed of local defense operations, supported by a mobile support component made up primarily of Nung mercenaries called "Mike Force." Jack and Python are among the soldiers dispatched into Vietnam to participate in the mission until Python is severely wounded.

May 28th: Three TD-2 telephone relay stations in Cedar Mountain, Utah as well as several in Wendover, Nevada were blown up by two men,[8] temporarily paralyzing the defense communications system. The two men plead guilty and are sentenced to eight years in prison.[9] This event is cited to be the reason why the military considers developing and adopting ARPANET as its communication system.[10]

August: American movie The Guns of Navarone is released.[3]

August 13th: Construction begins on the Berlin Wall in Germany.[3]

September 1st: The Eritrean War of Independence begins.

September 21st: The U.S. Army 5th Special Forces Group is activated[3] by President Kennedy due to the need of special units with insurgency combat expertise caused by the growing threat of the Viet Cong insurgency to the South Vietnamese government.

September 25th: President Kennedy delivered a speech to the UN General Assembly, citing that it is only though the UN that the world can find an alternate method from war.

October: The Soviet Union conducts its first atomic test in space above Russia.[3]

October: Japanese movie Last War is released.[3]

October 30th: The Soviet Union tests the Tsar Bomba, the largest nuclear weapon in existence, over the Arctic.

December: President Kennedy announces increase in deployed troops to aid South Vietnam.[3]

Harry Gregson-Williams is born.[3]

The Vz61 Scorpion is developed in Czechoslovokia.[1]

The Boss notices a discrepancy within the Sputnik Mk 5 blueprints that her sleeper agent obtains. After the CIA ignores her concerns, she sneaks into the Soviet Union's OKB-1 without their permission and discovers that her sleeper has been turned, due to the CIA withholding the spy's full payment. The Boss discovers that Sputnik 5's tube is actually a pilot ejection system and reports her findings to NASA. The CIA then lies to the recently inaugurated Kennedy about what happened, claiming it was the fault of The Boss.[2]

1962Edit

January: The Navy SEALs are formed.[3] SEAL Team 1 is commissioned in the Pacific fleet and SEAL Team 2 is commissioned in the Atlantic fleet.

January 3rd: The Gemini Project commences. It is the second human spaceflight program of NASA. Its objective is to develop techniques for advanced space travel, notably those necessary for Apollo, whose objective is to land humans on the Moon.

February 20th: The Mercury Atlas 6 (Friendship 7) is launched, sending John Glenn into space. This is the first time an American orbits the Earth.[3]

July: Kyle Cooper is born.[3]

July 9th: The Starfish Prime test is conducted at Johnston Island, detonating a nuclear weapon at a high altitude. This concept later allows for the potential of using Nuclear weapons as EMP devices.[11]

Late September to early October: Major Zero helps Dr. Sokolov's family defect from the Soviet Union to the West. Shortly afterwards, Sokolov himself is evacuated. After two weeks and over 1,000km (600mi) of travel, Sokolov arrives in West Berlin, and is checked into a hospital due to exhaustion.[1]

October: British spy James Bond makes his first movie appearance in Dr. No.[3][12]

October 14th to November 20th: A U.S. Lockheed U-2 surveillance craft discovers Soviet missiles in Cuba. The Cuban Missile Crisis.[6][3] A Russian sub commander refused to launch a nuclear-armed torpedo at an American destroyer. Sokolov is returned to the Soviet Union upon a secret agreement by the two world powers.[6] Sokolov is sent back to Russia as a result of the crisis.[3] After failing to build a missile base in Cuba, the Soviet Union searches for an alternate location close to the U.S.[10]

December: The north of Borneo (Malaysia) secedes from Indonesia. The British SAS are sent to Malaysia to fight the Indonesians, utilizing the effectiveness of shotguns in jungle warfare. This prompts the Soviet Union to conduct research in Tselinoyarsk, regarding the use of shotguns in jungle guerrilla combat.

December 14th: The Mariner 2 approaches Venus and begins scanning the planet, revealing that it has cool clouds and an extremely hot surface. The Mariner 2 later approaches Mars and sends back data relating to the planet.[3]

The Boss carries out a covert mission in Tselinoyarsk, where she is ordered to kill The Sorrow, her former lover.[1]

The Loatian "Secret War" begins. During the Vietnam War, the CIA organizes the "Secret Army", a highly-effective group of Hmong and Meo tribesmen, to fight against the Pathet Lao and People's Army of Vietnam in Laos.

The United States begins production of the Davy Crockett nuclear missiles.[3] Although it went through mass-production, it was never actually deployed into battle because of problems with the launcher's precision and range.[1]

Major Zero creates the FOX Unit, also known as Force Operation X, a special services division of the CIA. John is part of the organization.[1]

The SS-1C Scud-B missiles, designed by Aleksandr Leonovitch Granin, are deployed.[1]

Chico is born.

1963Edit

April 1st: Ending a 114 day strike led by Bertram A. Powers, The New York Times publishes a 702 page Sunday edition.[note 1]

May: An American agent working within GRU, Oleg Penkovsky, is arrested and executed by the KGB.

June 16th: Valentina Tereshkova boards the Vostok 6 and becomes the first female cosmonaut.[3]

June 19th: The film Jason and the Argonauts is released.[1]

June 20th: The United States and the Soviet Union sign the Hotline Agreement; a direct telephone connection is set up between the U.S. and Soviet leaders.[3][note 2]

July 4th: The movie The Great Escape is released.[3]

August 24th: Hideo Kojima is born.[3]

August 5th: The United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union sign the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) in the Kremlin. This signing banned atmospheric, space-based, and underwater testing of nuclear weapons.[3]

October: The James Bond movie From Russia With Love is released.[1][13]

November: John le Carré publishes The Spy Who Came in from the Cold.[3]

November 1st: South Vietnamese President Ngô Đình Diệm was deposed by a group of Army of the Republic of Vietnam officers, backed by the CIA.

November 22nd: President Kennedy is assassinated. Lyndon B. Johnson becomes the 36th President of the United States.[3]

The M63 is developed and released.

Late 1963: 10,000 U.S. military advisors stationed in South Vietnam, with 100,000 South Vietnamese civilians serving the U.S. military.[3]

The 1963 death toll is 78 American soldiers, 8,100 South Vietnamese soldiers, and 20,600 NIF soldiers.[3]

1964Edit

Anti-Vietnam War protests begin. Kazuhira Miller witnesses the rise of this movement as a college student in America.[2]

January 11th: The United States Department of Health announces that cigarettes can cause lung cancer.

January 24th: The MACV-SOG is established. A highly classified, multi-service United States special operations unit, SOG conducts covert unconventional warfare operations prior to and during the Vietnam War. The CIA is heavily involved in the unit's activities and operations.

January 29th: The movie Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb is released.[1]

February: The frequency of nuclear testing in Semipalatinsk increases in order to test the Shagohod.

February 19th: The Umbrellas of Cherbourg is released in France.

July 2nd: President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act.[3]

July: The Rhodesian Civil War begins, fought between the white minority ruling government of Rhodesia and the allied ZANU/ZAPU militant organizations.

July 24th: The Boss, using a Philosophers spy network, discovers that Sokolov is sent back to the OKB-754 research facility to complete the Shagohod, and that the weapon itself is nearing completion.[1]

August 2nd; August 4th: Gulf of Tonkin incident. The USS Maddox gets into a crossfire with three North Vietnamese torpedo boats.[3]

August 17th-23rd: A female Chinese spy, under the alias of Tatyana, infiltrates Tselinoyarsk and convinces researcher Nikolai Stephanovich Sokolov that she is working for Khrushchev to obtain the Shagohod data.[14]

5:30 am August 24th: Virtuous Mission.[1][3] John, a.k.a. Jack, is assigned the codename Naked Snake. Snake performs the world's first ever HALO (High Altitude-Low Opening) jump and infiltrates Tselinoyarsk to rescue Nikolai Stephanovich Sokolov. Snake and Ocelot meet for the first time. Sokolov divulges the existence of the Shagohod, a nuclear-equipped super-tank, to Snake. The Boss defects to the Soviet Union, kidnapping Sokolov and severely injuring Snake. Colonel Volgin fires a Davy Crockett into the OKB-754 research facility. Snake is extracted and placed in an Intensive Care Unit.

11:30 pm August 30th: Operation Snake Eater.[1] Naked Snake infiltrates Tselinoyarsk once again to rescue Sokolov, destroy the Shagohod, eliminate the Cobra Unit, Colonel Volgin and The Boss, and retrieve the Philosophers' Legacy. He meets up with EVA who has infiltrated Volgin's ranks, and she offers to help him out.

September 2nd: Operation Snake Eater is declared a success.[1] The Shagohod is destroyed; the members of the Cobra Unit are dead. Colonel Volgin is killed by a bolt of lightning, and Naked Snake assassinates The Boss, recovering the Philosophers' Legacy. EVA, who was in fact an agent for the People's Republic of China, steals the microfilm and takes it back to China. It is later found to be a fake.

September: Naked Snake earns the title "Big Boss"[1], but leaves FOX shortly thereafter.

The Philosophers' Legacy that EVA stole turns out to be a fake.[1] Half of the real Legacy is safely returned to the CIA by KGB double agent Ocelot, a.k.a. ADAM, who had infiltrated Volgin's ranks.

The FARC begin an armed rebellion against the Colombian government with support from Cuba and the Soviet Union. During this time, the FARC hand over the San Hieronymo Peninsula to the Soviet Union in exchange for supplying the group with weapons.[10] The Soviets establish an IRBM facility on the peninsula, and begin development of the missile silos.

September 21st: The first test flight of the XB-70, a heavy bomber airplane which can fly at Mach 3 speeds.[3]

September 25th: The Mozambican War of Independence begins. It is an armed conflict between the guerrilla forces of the Mozambique Liberation Front or FRELIMO (Frente de Libertação de Moçambique) and Portugal.

October: The Tokyo Olympics is held.[3]

October 12th: Three cosmonauts are sent into space aboard the Voskhod 1, becoming the first multi-man crew sent to space.[3]

October 15th: Premier Khrushchev resigns from his position. Leonid Brezhnev becomes Party First Secretary.[15]

October 16th: China successfully concludes its first tests of nuclear weaponry at the Lop Nur testing site in the Taika Makan desert, and becomes the world's fifth nuclear power.[15]

December: Motosada Mori is born.[3]

December 11th: The Three Non-Nuclear Principles are introduced in Japan, which means non-production, non-possession, and non-introduction of nuclear weapons.

The tortilla chip brand Doritos is produced.

1965Edit

January 30th: The U.S. officially enters the Vietnam conflict.

March 2nd: The U.S. begins bombing North Vietnam.[6]

Sigint joins ARPA and takes part in the development of ARPAnet.[6][15]

November 1st: The First Chadian Civil War begins.

The German MBT Leopard 1 is deployed, replacing the American-made MBT M47 and M48 Pattons.

November 11th: Rhodesia unilaterally announces its independence from the United Kingdom.

November 25th: The Congo Crisis ends, with the revolution ending in failure.[2] FSLN child soldier Chico, later express regret for not being able to help in the revolution.

1966Edit

March 3rd: The M47 Dragon is first designed by the American defense contract arms company Raytheon.

The U.S. government conducts a study on emergency medical treatment. The Department of Transportation lays the groundwork for the creation of the EMS system.[15]

Big Boss encounters Frank Jaeger, a child soldier, during the Mozambican War of Independence. After rescuing him, he places him into a care facility, from where he is later taken by the Philosophers for their Perfect Soldier Project.

A FOX operative codenamed "Viper" rescues a woman with ESP and split personality disorder from an East German lab.

November: Strasbourg University experiences a student protest for reform.

Lockheed is commissioned by the United States Army to develop 10 prototypes of the Lockheed AH56 Cheyenne Attack Choppers.

A Soviet engineer, also a radar expert, publishes an article relating to calculating the radar-reflecting surface area of an aircraft.

The Marine Corps orders a large shipment of M870 shotguns.

1967Edit

February 14th: The Treaty of Tlatelolco is first signed in the Tlatelolco district of Mexico City with the intention of making Latin America into a nuclear-free zone, prohibiting the testing, use, manufacture, production, acquisition, storage, and deployment of nuclear weapons.

October 7th: Che Guevara is captured by the Bolivian Special Forces, assisted by CIA Special Activities Division commandos.

October 9th: Che Guevara is executed at the age of 39. French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre later declares him to be "not only an intellectual but also the most complete human being of our age."[2][16]

The Soviets begin designing an enhanced version of the T-62 tank, the T-72 Ural tank.

The United States starts launching Apollo Program missions, with the intention of sending a man on the moon.

The United States begin deployment and launching of the Saturn V, the largest launch vehicle ever built. A Soviet spy within NASA steals the blueprints of the rocket allowing the Soviet Union to develop its own version.

The CIA initiates the Phoenix Program, a military, intelligence, and internal security program, in Vietnam. It has the objective of attacking the Viet Cong infrastructure with the rifle approach rather than the shotgun approach towards its leaders. The program is designed to identify and "neutralize" (via infiltration, capture, terrorism, or assassination) the civilian infrastructure supporting the Viet Cong insurgency. The program continues until 1972, with similar efforts existing both before and after this period.

1968Edit

EVA disappears in Hanoi without a trace.[6][15]

February 12th: Bon Curry is released in Japan.

April 2nd-4th: The movie 2001: A Space Odyssey is released.

April 22nd: The Treaty of Tlatelolco is made effective.

May: The May 1968 protest occurs in France, nearly collapsing French President Charles de Gaulle's government.

July 1st: The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is opened for signatures.

August 21st: The Soviet Union invades Czechoslovakia.

Kazuhira Miller joins the Japan Self-Defense Forces.

1969Edit

January 20th: Richard Nixon becomes the 37th President of the United States.

March 21st: Konami is established.

May 19th: The contract for the AH56 Cheyenne is cancelled after technical problems and at least one fatal crash put production behind schedule.

July 14th-18th: A war breaks out between Honduras and El Salvador because of political instability between the two nations as well as the results of a soccer match.

July 20th: The Apollo Program puts the first man on the moon. A ceasefire between Honduras and El Salvador takes effect.

November 17th: SALT-1 negotiations are initiated, in order to limit the number of deployed U.S. and Soviet ballistic missiles, provoking a détente era between the two countries. Construction of the secret Soviet missile base on the San Hieronymo Peninsula are abandoned, and many Russian soldiers are forced to remain stationed there.

December 5th: The United States Department of Defense and ARPA establish ARPAnet, the basis for the Internet.

OPANAL is formed.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The official site's timeline erroneously states that the New York newspaper strike ended in 1960.
  2. ^ The Metal Gear Solid 3 manual erroneously states that the agreement was signed in February.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2004).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima Productions (2010).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater instruction manual, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2004).
  4. ^ Based on a real life incident.
  5. ^ http://mgsdb.com/en/enc/391
  6. ^ a b c d e f g METAL GEAR SOLID THE LEGACY COLLECTION OFFICIAL WEBSITE. Konami Digital Entertainment (2013). Retrieved on 2014-03-30.
  7. ^ Metal Gear Saga Vol. 2, Konami Digital Entertainment, Inc (2008).
  8. ^ http://www.beatriceco.com/bti/porticus/bell/longlines-expdam.html
  9. ^ http://etler.livejournal.com/23113.html
  10. ^ a b c Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops, Kojima Productions (2006).
  11. ^ http://mgsdb.com/en/enc/295/1
  12. ^ Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater instruction manual, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2004).
    The manual gives the Japan release date of Dr. No in June 1963, whereas the movie premiered in the UK in October 1962.
  13. ^ Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater instruction manual, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2004).
    The manual gives the Japan release date of From Russia with Love in April 1964, whereas the movie premiered in the UK in October 1963.
  14. ^ Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2004).
    Naked Snake: [...] How long has Tatyana been here? // Sokolov: Only a few weeks. // Snake: A few days before the Virtuous Mission, then. // Sokolov: She said that Khrushchev sent her. // Snake: What did you just give her // Sokolov: All of the experimental data for the Shagohod. Please, it is essential that you destroy the Shagohod.
  15. ^ a b c d e Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater (ending timeline), Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2004).
  16. ^ "Remembering Che Guevara", 9 October 2006, ''The International News'', by Prof Khwaja Masud. The News International (9 October 2006). Retrieved on 27 October 2011.

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