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North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.

Described below are some example countries within North America, using the most inclusive definition, which covers the landmass north of the Panama-Colombia border, and the islands of the Caribbean.

Canada

Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. Canada is the world's second-largest country by total area, and its common border with the United States is the world's longest land border shared by the same two countries. It is a federal state governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with the British monarch as its head of state. The country is officially bilingual, its two languages being Canadian English and Canadian French.

The land that is now Canada has been inhabited for millennia by various Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French colonial expeditions explored, and later settled, the region's Atlantic coast, with France ceding nearly all of its colonies in North America to the United Kingdom in 1763. With the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation in 1867, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy.

During the 1970s, the Canadian forces attempted to develop three new Armored Personnel Carriers: The AVGP Cougar, the AVGP Grizzly, and the AVGP Husky. The former two were secretly supplied by the CIA-based mercenary group Peace Sentinel in 1973 for their Peace Walker Project in order to work as a testing run for the vehicles, before eventually being deployed in 1975.

In the mid-to-late 1990s, Solid Snake, after resigning from FOXHOUND after the Outer Heaven Uprising, entered semi-retirement in Canada, after working as a CIA operative and later six-month mercenary.

Costa Rica

Main article: Costa Rica

Cuba

Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean, as well as one of the few countries to continue adopting the Marxist form of Communism after the Cold War. In 1959, Cuba underwent a revolution led by Fidel Castro that ultimately resulted in the country becoming Communist and an embargo was placed on Cuba by the United States as a result.

In 1961, President John F. Kennedy inherited control of the previous President's plan to have exiled Cubans retake Cuba and oust the Communist influence. However, things went awry and Kennedy held back on air support, resulting in a disastrous ending to the mission in what would later be called the "Bay of Pigs" Invasion. The Boss was also believed to have participated in the event, although this was actually a cover story for The Boss being in a coma from a failed space flight during this time, and the event also resulted in a souring of relations between the United States Department of Defense and the CIA.

A few months later, in October, the country was the subject for the Cuban Missile Crisis, after a U2 spy plane uncovered evidence that the Soviet Russians were attempting to build a missile base in Cuba, which resulted in the world coming close to Nuclear War. As a result of the Cuban Missile Crisis being averted, America had to allow the Soviets to take back Dr. Nikolai Stepanovich Sokolov (which was covered up by the Turkey Deal) in exchange for the Soviets pulling out of Cuba.

Warning: The following information is from outside Hideo Kojima's core "Metal Gear Saga." It has some level of canonicity within the continuity, but reader discretion is advised.[?]

The Soviets secretly building a missile base in Colombia was also included in the deal.

Non-"Metal Gear Saga" information ends here.

Approximately thirteen years later, Cuba was also involved in a nuclear attack, only this time it was the one being threatened by nuclear attack. Vladimir Zadornov, a KGB agent, betrayed the Peace Sentinel leader, CIA Station Chief of Central America Hot Coldman by switching the false data (imaginary data of a missile strike programmed to trick Peace Walker into launching a nuclear strike) to Cuba, so that America would end up being blamed for the incident by the international community (as the missile was technically launched from an American Base located in Nicaragua, a country with a pro-American regime).

Unfortunately, Zadornov severely underestimated Coldman, as while he hadn't initially thought of Cuba as being a target, he eventually decided that Cuba being the target would be perfect for his test, and nearly caused a catastrophic, all out nuclear war.

In the 1970s, former Cipher agent Paz Ortega Andrade and the Sandinista Chico were both detained at an American black site in Cuba, named Camp Omega. Big Boss of the Militaires Sans Frontières personally infiltrated the camp in an attempt to rescue them.

Grenada

Grenada is an island in the Caribbean Sea located next to Cuba. In 1977, thanks to Chico leaking a photo of Chrysalis to a magazine publisher making it seem as if it were a UFO photograph, the prime minister of Grenada, Sir Eric Gairy, requested that the UN establish an agency to study the "UFO problem" both due to the magazine photo as well as reports spawning all over the Americas about UFO abductions and Cattle Mutilations. It was invaded by the United States and several Caribbean nations in the wake of a military coup against the country's revolutionary government in 1983. The invasion successfully removed the revolutionary government from power and restored the country's constition which had been suspended.

In the manual for the Nintendo Entertainment System version of Metal Gear, it was stated that prior to Operation Intrude N313, Solid Snake had taken part in the Grenada Invasion. Based on the information presented in later installments, Snake would have been 11 years old at the time, thus making his involvement impossible.

Haiti

Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti, is a nation among the Carribbean Islands. Occupying the western portion of the Hispaniola landmass that contains it and the Dominican Republic, it was a former French colony, acting as one of the reasons why French is one of its languages, being the only predominant independent former colony in the Americas to have French as one of its primary languages and one of only two predominant countries in the Americas overall to speak French as a primary language (the only other being Canada).

It was one of the locations of the Americas discovered by Christopher Columbus during his voyage to find a shorter trade route to India. It was later colonized by the French in 1697 as part of the Treaty of Ryswick. The colony, named Saint-Domingue, eventually revolted in 1804 in the Hatian revolution, inspired by the French Revolution that had occurred.

By the 1970s, the country suffered under a dictatorship for several decades, and also experienced a widening gap between wealth, leading some to end up in a refugee camp inside the United States Naval Prison Facility at Cuba.

Mexico

Mexico, officially known as the United Mexican States, is a primarily Spanish-speaking country located directly below the United States' southern border. Originally named New Spain due to it being a Spanish colony in the 1500s (hence why its primary language was Spanish), it was renamed Mexico after the capital city, Mexico City, which was named after the Aztec capital, México-Tenochtitlan, which was also located directly on top of the aforementioned capital. The American State of Texas was originally part of Mexico before it declared its independence and later became an American State. Mexico was also rather infamous for it being part of the Central American drug trade route to the United States as well as the illegal immigration route. In 1992, the area also experienced an explosion in the sewers.

Warning: The following information is from outside Hideo Kojima's core "Metal Gear Saga." It has some level of canonicity within the continuity, but reader discretion is advised.[?]

At some point in the late 2010s, the PMC Desperado commenced a mission inside the Guadalajara metropolitan area of Jalisco, one of the 32 states (counting the Federal District) in Mexico relating to a research facility. An NGO group with ties to the PMC Maverick, when investigating human trafficking in Mexico, stumbled upon this, and requested for Maverick to do an investigation on whether they were indeed involved. Raiden, of the PMC Maverick, was dispatched to infiltrate the country at least two days after quelling the Abkhazian Coup (also instigated by Desperado). He was accompanied by the Blade Wolf during this mission, and drove a black car during part of the mission.

He also briefly disguised himself in a Mariachi outfit in a misguided attempt to blend in with the locals. Afterwards, he discovered a grate and attempted to enter it while the car drove off, although he was briefly spotted by some civilians, causing Raiden to simply say "Adios, amigos!" before disappearing under the grate and leaving his sombrero behind. He then investigated and discovered that not only was the facility indeed owned by Desperado, but they were using it to carve up children to place their brains in cyborg cranium canisters for use for the Sears Program, with World Marshal and Colorado Senator Steven Armstrong (who had previously been investigated by a grand jury for ties to World Marshal) being in on it.

Non-"Metal Gear Saga" information ends here.

Nicaragua

Nicaragua is a country in Central America. Bordering Costa Rica, Nicaragua is a country under political turmoil, with the Somoza regime putting its citizens in a harsh treatment. In addition, Nicaragua was never given a chance to think for itself, often obeying the will of the Spanish when it was a Spanish colony, and later America when it was an independent nation.

Nicaragua was once under the rule of a Southern U.S. mercenary by the name of William Walker until he was driven out. They were also given a lease by the United States to build a canal in Nicaragua until it was revoked. In actuality, America never intended to build a canal and only leased it to prevent other nations from developing on Nicaragua, and sent the Marines in to cow the Nicaraguans into submission, under the pretext of "restoring order." Eventually, Augusto César Sandino managed to drive out the mercenaries. America also promoted the Somoza regime's rise to power, of which one former U.S. President supposedly remarked that "[Somoza] may be a son of a bitch, but he's our son of a bitch!"

This included Somoza holding a sham election and General Sandino to be assassinated, as well as having La Guardia terrorize the populace into submission. A United States Missile and Supply Base was located near Lago Cocibolca on its eastern shore, established around the time of the 1972 Nicaraguan Earthquake. In addition, various monetary aid from the West was donated to Nicaragua to recover from the earthquake that devasted the capital, but the Somoza regime pocketed all of the donations and used it for their own pleasures. This ultimately was the last straw for the Nicaraguan people.

On Lago Cocibolca, there is a volcanic island called Ometepe which was formed from two connected volcanoes in the shape of a porongo (Spanish word for "gourd"). One of the volcanoes, Concepcion, still smokes and erupts once in a while. The other, Maderas, has not erupted in recorded history and contains a crater lake. However, Sandinista Amanda Valenciano once stated that it might have erupted again if one of Peace Walker's nukes was detonated within Maderas if it had a factory inside, due to the nuke's detonation destabilizing the magma underneath, resulting in terrible consequences for Nicaragua.

On November 1974, the U.S. missile and supply base would become the focal climatic point of the Peace Walker Incident. The conflict betwen the CIA Peace Sentinel and Big Boss's mercenary group Militaires Sans Frontières, ended when the latter was able to stop the Peace Walker project and prevent nuclear armageddon.

Nicaragua’s civil war of the 1980s left the country ridden with land mines, which continued to kill and maim non-combatants long after the war's end, due to the difficulty in removing them.[1]

Panama

Panama is a country in Central America, bordering Costa Rica to the north. It was the sight of the Panama Canal.

In the early 1970s, the Peace Sentinel mercenary group planned to implement the Peace Walker nuclear deterrent in Panama, alongside the rest of Central America, but were thwarted by the Militaires Sans Frontières.

Warning: The following information is from outside Hideo Kojima's core "Metal Gear Saga." It has some level of canonicity within the continuity, but reader discretion is advised.[?]

From December 20, 1989 — January 31, 1990, America invaded Panama in a move called Operation Just Cause, in which Sundowner participated.

Non-"Metal Gear Saga" information ends here.

In 1994, Panama was persuaded by Costa Rica (who had by that time declared permanent neutrality) to abolish its military.

St. Kitts and Nevis

St. Kitts and Nevis, full name Saint Kitts and Nevis and also known as the Federation of St. Kitts and Nevis or Saint Christopher and Nevis, is a federal two-island nation in the Carribbean Sea's West Indies located in the Leeward Islands. It was the smallest sovereign nation in the Americas, both in area and population. It was also among the first colonized areas in the Carribbeans by the Europeans, and for certain was the first English and French Colony in the same area, thus earning it the nickname of the "Mother of the Colonies." The main capital was located on the larger island, Saint Kitts, which was separated from Nevis, the smaller island, by a two mile channel to the southeast called "The Narrows." Saint Kitts and Nevis bordered  the islands of Sint Eustatius, the Netherlands-owned Saba, Saint Barthélemy, Saint-Martin/Sint Maarten and Anguilla to the north-northwest; Antigua and Barbuda to the east and northeast; and Redonda and Montserrat to the southeast (the former being uninhabited, and the latter possessing an active volcano).

Warning: The following information is from outside Hideo Kojima's core "Metal Gear Saga." It has some level of canonicity within the continuity, but reader discretion is advised.[?]

It was infamous for being a tax haven for multinational corporations. It was in part because of this that the Delaware-based private military company Desperado underwent most of its financials at St. Kitts and Nevis.

Non-"Metal Gear Saga" information ends here.

United States of America

Main article: United States of America

Notes and references

  1. ^ Metal Gear Solid, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (1998).
    Nastasha Romanenko Anti-personnel mines have killed over 20,000 non-combatants in the past thirty years. In countries like Cambodia and Nicaragua, the killing and maiming of innocent victims continues long after the wars have ended. It is easy to plant the mines, you see, but removing them is a different matter. It requires more time and manpower than anyone is willing to invest.

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