Events prior to the 20th century ranged from the birth of rocket technology in the Medieval period, to the European colonization of America and subsequent revolutionary movements in modern times.

13th century

Years Events
The Chinese utilize an arrow-like device that expels gunpowder when launched, becoming the first usage of rockets in recorded history. [1]
1223 Mongol Invasion of Europe. The Mongols improve upon the earlier design of the Chinese weapons and use them frequently during the invasion. [1]

15th century

Years Events
1429–1431 French national heroine Joan of Arc leads forces into battle during the Hundred Years' War. [2]

16th century

Years Events
1502 Fourth voyage of Christopher Columbus. Columbus discovers Costa Rica around the point that Limón now stands. [2]

17th century

Years Events
1620 The Mayflower sails from Plymouth, England, to North America. [3]

18th century

Years Events
1765 American Patriots living in Boston form the "Sons of Liberty." [4]
1773 The Sons of Liberty instigate the Boston Tea Party in protest of the British Crown's excessive taxation of its American colonies. [4]
1789 April 30: George Washington is inaugurated as the first President of the United States in a ceremony at Federal Hall. [4]
1789–1799 The French Revolution. "La Marsellaise" becomes the national anthem of France. [2]
1795 Immanuel Kant publishes an essay called "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch." [2]

19th century

Years Events
1804 The Congreve rocket is developed by the British. [1]
1805 The Battle of Trafalgar. Admiral Horatio Nelson leads British forces to victory, though he is fatally wounded during the battle. [5]
1812–15 The War of 1812. [1]
1814 August 24 – 25: The Burning of Washington. Washington, D.C. is invaded by British forces and burned to the ground. The American flag reportedly survives, which leads to the creation of the national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner." The use of the Congreve rocket by the British during this time is referenced in the anthem's verse "the Rocket's red glare." [1]
1831 March 10: The French Foreign Legion is created. [2]
1836 February 26 – March 6: The Battle of the Alamo occurs. [3]
1844 Alexandre Dumas's novel The Three Musketeers is released. [6]
1851 Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick is released. [7]
1856 October 13: United States mercenary William Walker seizes power in Nicaragua. Initially hired by the Nicaraguan Democratic Party to help counter the Conservative Party, Walker exploits rivalries between the two, eventually making himself president. He makes English an official language and tries to reintroduce slavery in order to build a "Caribbean Empire" centered on the American South. [2]
1857 May 1: A united Central American army led by Costa Rica expels William Walker from Nicaragua. [2]
1860s The End is born. [3]
1861–1865 The American Civil War. Symptoms of combat stress are first identified. [8]
1880s Code Talker is born. [9]
1883 Carlo Collodi's novel The Adventures of Pinocchio is released. [7]
1883 Robert Louis Stevenson's novel Treasure Island is released. [2]
c. 1895 – c. 1904 Aleksandr Leonovitch Granin is born. [3][10]
1898 The Spanish American War. [11]
1899–1902 The Second Boer War. The British annex territory from Boer states, which would later constitute the Republic of South Africa. [7]

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d e Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops, Kojima Productions (2006).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Kojima Productions (2010).
  3. ^ a b c d Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2004).
  4. ^ a b c Metal Gear Solid 4 Database, Kojima Productions (2008).
  5. ^ Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots, Kojima Productions (2008).
  6. ^ Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, Konami Computer Entertainment Japan (2001).
  7. ^ a b c Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain, Kojima Productions (2015).
  8. ^ Metal Gear Solid 4: The Guns of the Patriots, Kojima Productions (2008).
    Rosemary: The primary mission of CSPs like mine is to provide care for soldiers suffering from combat stress. // Old Snake: Sounds like a good gig. // Rosemary: The symptoms were first identified during the American Civil War. During World War I they called it shell shock. Today it's known as post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD.
  9. ^ Metal Gear Solid 5 Fox Engine Tech Demo - YouTube
  10. ^ Metal Gear Solid 3 character bios
  11. ^ Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes, Kojima Productions (2014).

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